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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effectiveness of the damon system in the treatment of nonextraction orthodontic cases
Yasmine M Sayed, Safaa M Gaballah, Eman M El Shourbagy
January-March 2016, 13(1):18-27
DOI:10.4103/1687-8574.186942  
Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dental, skeletal, and soft-tissue change in crowding cases treated with nonextraction approach using the Damon system. Materials and methods The sample included 20 patients, with an average age of 17.8 ± 3.7 years, selected on the basis of pretreatment class I skeletal and molar relationships with an acceptable soft tissue facial profile, and a moderate crowding range between 4.0 and 9.0 mm for the maxilla and 2.0 and 6.0 mm for the mandible. None of them had received any orthodontic treatment before, or had extraction or any congenital anomalies such as supernumerary teeth. Results The evaluation of the study was performed by detecting the dental, skeletal, and soft tissue changes between pretreatment and post-treatment study models and lateral cephalometric radiographs. The paired t-test was used for statistical analysis. The treatment required 20.7 ± 2.2 months to be finished, with an average of 13.8 ± 1.5 appointments. Conclusion The results of this study revealed that the correction of crowding was achieved through expansion of the dental arches and mandibular incisors proclination.
  2,895 451 -
Sealing ability and obturation quality of root canals filled with gutta-percha and two different sealers
Rabab A Gad, Ali M Farag, Hatem A El-Hediny, Abeer M Darrag
October-December 2016, 13(4):165-170
DOI:10.4103/1687-8574.195703  
Aim To evaluate sealing ability and quality of obturation when canal filled with gutta-percha and either mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), or AH Plus sealer with detection of any possible correlation between microleakage and voids. Materials and methods Human freshly extracted 30 maxillary one-rooted teeth were prepared and assigned to experimental groups (n = 10), designated as group I: gutta-percha/AH Plus, group II: gutta-percha/MTA sealer, group III positive control group (n = 5) teeth unobturated, group IV: negative control group (n = 5) teeth obturated with gutta-percha, AH Plus sealer. After obturation, each tooth was prepared for fluid filtration assessment. Voids detection was performed through cross-sectional analysis at three root levels. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance at a level of confidence of 95%. Results None of the tested obturation systems was able to provide leak proof filling. The sealing ability of MTA FillApex sealer showed higher parameters than AH Plus sealer even if it was not significant. The lowest percent of voids was recorded at the apical third for both tested sealers. The correlation between leakage and voids percentage was nonsignificant. Conclusion Calcium silicate root canal sealer (MTA FillApex) and AH Plus sealer can provide adequate seal with low voids percent. None of the root canal filled teeth were gap-free. Voids percentage cannot be used as an indicator for sealing ability.
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Role of periodontopathogenic virus in periodontal disease: a review
Chandni Gupta, Deepa Dhruvakumar
April-June 2017, 14(2):51-55
DOI:10.4103/tdj.tdj_61_16  
Periodontal diseases are infectious diseases, but the specific mechanism by which the tooth-supportive tissue is destroyed is not clearly understood. Viral infection impairs periodontal defenses, thereby permitting subgingival overgrowth of periodontopathic bacteria. The role of viruses is significant, as they may induce abnormalities in the adhesion, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and bactericidal activities of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. When associated with one another, viruses and bacteria have stronger periodontopathogenic potential than individually. Therefore, it is significant to know all etiologic factors and such an insight would lead to the better treatment of the disease.
  1,541 359 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The diagnostic utility of pan-cytokeratin, CK19, CEA, CD10, and p63 in differentiating clear cell odontogenic carcinoma from hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma
Omneya M Wahba
April-June 2016, 13(2):73-82
DOI:10.4103/1687-8574.188907  
Background Clear cell carcinoma (CCC), or hyalinizing CCC, and clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC) are rare and typically indolent malignancies that can be diagnostically challenging. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic utility of p63, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CD10, pan-cytokeratin (pan-CK), and cytokeratin 19 (CK19) in the diagnosis of CCOC and hyalinizing CCC. Material and Methods The study groups comprised patients with CCOC (n = 15) and CCC (n = 10). The blocks of CCOC and CCCs were prepared for immunohistochemical staining for p63, CEA, CD10, pan-CK, and CK19. Results The results of this study revealed significant differences between the expression of pan-CK, CK19, and CEA between CCOC and hyalinizing CCC, with no significant value of p63 and CD10 expression. In conclusion, CCOC and hyalinizing CCC are malignant, locally aggressive tumors with the capacity to metastasize. Conclusion Based on the current observations and immunostains, it can be concluded that they are difficult, and, in some cases, impossible to distinguish morphologically and immunohistochemically despite a different cell of origin. Pan-CK, CK19, and CEA may have slight significant difference between CCOC and hyalinizing CCC but the diagnosis of these tumors mainly depends on the exclusion of other tumors. In addition, histological and immunohistochemical analyses of neoplasm features have limited value.
  1,323 115 -
Shaping ability of single versus multi file rotary Ni-Ti systems in curved root canals
A Ghobashy, MM Nagy, MF Obeid
April-June 2016, 13(2):68-72
DOI:10.4103/1687-8574.188910  
Objectives The aim of this study is to compare the shaping ability (straightening of curved root canals, apical transportation, preparation time) of single and multi-file rotary systems during the preparation of curved root canals in extracted human molar teeth. Methods Sixty mandibular molars were divided according to the instrument used into three groups of 20 teeth each: group PTU (ProTaper Uneiversal), group PTN (ProTaper Next) and group OS (One Shape). Using standardized pre- and post-instrumentation radiographs, straightening of canal curvature was determined using image analysis software. A double-digital standardized radiographic technique was used to determine apical transportation. Preparation time was also recorded. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Tukey's test, and significance was set at P < 0.05. Results During root canal preparation, no instruments fractured. The use of PTN resulted in significantly less canal straightening followed by OS then PT. There were no significant differences between the three groups with respect to apical transportation. PTN were significantly faster than PTU and OS. Conclusion Under the conditions of this study, ProTaper Next Protaper Universal and One Shape instruments respected original canal curvature and were safe to use. Protaper Next was the fastest among them.
  1,134 249 -
Effect of different desensitizing adhesive systems on the shear bond strength of composite resin to dentin surface
Ahlam Abd El-Galil Nassar, Hussien Y El-Sayed, Wedad M Etman
April-June 2016, 13(2):109-117
DOI:10.4103/1687-8574.188913  
Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different desensitizing agents, oxalate desensitizer and I-Bond, on the shear bond strength of composite resin to dentin surface. Materials and methods Occlusal surfaces of 80 sound human molars extracted were trimmed to expose a flat dentin surface. Each prepared sample was inserted in a metallic mold, which was designed with a Teflon mold having a hole (4 mm diameter ×3 mm height) for filling the restorative material. The samples were divided into four groups (20 each): group I (the control group), in which Adper Single Bond 2 and composite were applied; group II, in which oxalate desensitizer (D/Sense Crystal) was applied followed by Adper Single Bond 2 and composite; group III, in which oxalate desensitizer was applied, followed by re-etching and application of Adper Single Bond 2 and composite; and group IV, in which I-Bond and composite were used. All samples were thermocycled for 500 cycles (5–55°C). The samples in each group were subdivided into two subgroups (10 each) (A and B) according to storage time (24 h or 6 months, respectively). Shear bond strength of eight samples from each subgroup was measured. Debonded surfaces were examined under a stereomicroscope at magnification ×40 to determine the mode of failure. The remaining two samples were prepared to be examined under scanning electron microscope to reveal the resin penetration. Results Group I (the control group) recorded the highest shear bond strength values (11.838 ± 3.141 and 6.842 ± 3.912, respectively) in the two subgroups, followed by group IV (6.695 ± 3.164 and 6.217 ± 3.276, respectively) and group III (7.707 ± 3.845 and 3.681 ± 1.743, respectively), whereas the lowest values were found in group II (6.347 ± 3.208 and 3.240 ± 1.804, respectively). The incidence of adhesive mode of failure was higher in all tested groups, followed by mixed mode. Scanning electron microscope results confirmed the obtained statistical analysis of collected data. Clinical significance Both desensitizing agents and storage time had a negative significant effect on the shear bond strength of composite restoration to dentin surface.
  1,163 182 1
Surface characterization and mechanical behavior of bulk fill versus incremental dental composites
Dalia A Abuelenain, Ensanya A Abou Neel, Ayman Al-Dharrab
April-June 2017, 14(2):56-61
DOI:10.4103/tdj.tdj_56_16  
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate surface and mechanical properties of bulk fill composite compared to conventional incremental composites. Materials and methods: The bulk fill composites were Filtek Bulk Fill, Sonic Fill, SDR Smart Dentin Replacement and Tetric-N-Ceram Bulk Fill while the incremental ones were Filtek Z350 × T and Herculite XRV Ultra. Surface roughness and wettability was measured using profilometer (Bruker) and drop shape analyzer (Kruss), respectively. Surface hardness of the top and bottom surface was measured using Micromet 6040 (Buehler). For mechanical test, the universal testing machine was used under the three-point bending test. Results: There was no statistical significant difference in wettability and surface roughness between bulk fill and incremental composites, except the SDR that showed statistically significance higher roughness than incremental composites. All composites showed significantly lower hardness than Filtek Z350; the lowest hardness was recorded for SDR. There was no significant difference between bulk fill and incremental composites in flexure strength and modulus. SDR showed the lowest flexure strength and modulus but the highest strain% (P < 0.05) compared to all tested materials. Sonic fill system showed significantly higher flexure strength and modulus when compared to other bulk fill materials (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The difference between bulk fill and incremental composite is mainly material dependent.
  1,043 246 -
Efficacy of EndoVac system and needle irrigation on root canal debridement
Saleh A Abdelglil, Ali M Farag, Hatem A El-Hediny, Abeer M Darrag
October-December 2016, 13(4):171-178
DOI:10.4103/1687-8574.195705  
Introduction The aim of this study is to compare the debridement efficacy of the EndoVac irrigation system versus needle irrigation with different irrigant solutions using scanning electron microscope. Materials and methods Eighty human freshly extracted single rooted teeth with fully developed, single root canals were collected. The teeth were divided randomly into two equal main groups according to the method of irrigation system used: group A, EndoVac system; and group B, needle irrigation. Each group was further subdivided into four equal subgroups according to the type of irrigant solution used: subgroup 1; sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), subgroup 2; EDTA, subgroup 3; mixture of tetracycline, acid and detergent (MTAD), subgroup 4; saline. The canals were instrumented to a master apical file size #40/0.02 taper. Roots were split longitudinally in a buccolingual direction and examined under scanning electron microscope. Result At all tested root canal levels, group A recorded lower mean rank of score percentage compared to group B with statistical significant difference between them (P = 0.001 and 0.039 at the middle and the apical root level, respectively), while there was no statistical significant difference between both groups (P = 0.053) at the coronal root level. Conclusion The debridement efficacy of NaOCl only, NaOCl+EDTA, NaOCl+MTAD or even saline increased when using EndoVac system rather than conventional needles especially in the apical third.
  754 482 -
Evaluation of root canals filled with bioceramic sealer after retreatment with two different techniques
Dalia A Sherif, Ali M Farag, Abeer M Darrag, Neveen A Shaheen
April-June 2017, 14(2):76-82
DOI:10.4103/tdj.tdj_10_17  
Purpose: To evaluate the remaining filling material (gutta-percha/EndoSequence bioceramic sealer) on root canal walls after retreatment using ProTaper universal retreatment (PTUR) system with and without chloroform solvent. Materials and methods: Thirty extracted human premolars with type I root canal system were used. After crown removal and working length determination, all root canals were prepared using nickel–titanium rotary ProTaper system and obturated using gutta-percha as a core filling material with EndoSequence bioceramic sealer. All roots were randomly divided into two equal main groups (n = 15) according to retreatment technique. Group I: filling materials was removed using PTUR system and chloroform as a solvent; while group II: filling materials was removed using PTUR system without solvent. Both groups were cleaved longitudinally and examined under scanning electron microscope to evaluate root canal filling remnants. Results: PTUR system with the aid of chloroform recorded highest values of score percentage of remaining filling material at all tested root canal levels. The values of score percentage of remaining filling materials were significantly lower at coronal level compared to other tested levels. Conclusion: Using chloroform during removal of root canal filling material using rotary instruments was associated with larger amount of residual root canal filling material compared to using rotary instruments only.
  1,001 205 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Piezowave in periodontology and oral implantology - an overview
Mrinalini A Bhatnagar, D Deepa
January-March 2017, 14(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/1687-8574.202054  
Ultrasound has been used for many years in periodontics to remove tartar, debride root surfaces, and to degranulate periodontal defects. In the last two decades, dental surgical techniques have developed rapidly. Piezosurgery is a novel surgical approach which was originally developed for the atraumatic cutting of bone by way of ultrasonic vibrations and as an alternative to the mechanical and electrical instruments that are used in conventional surgery. It is based on the basic principles of 'piezoelectricity' discovered by Pierre Curie and Jacquesin 19th century. Over the past two decades, piezoelectric devices have emerged as an innovative tool in the field of dentistry. There has been extensive research on indications of piezosurgery in the field of periodontology and implantology.
  989 217 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Clinical and radiographic comparative study between two different types of clasps materials used in unilateral maxillary Kennedy class II removable partial denture cases
Fatma A Elhadad, Fadel A Abd Elfatah, Nahed A Kashef
July-September 2016, 13(3):119-126
DOI:10.4103/1687-8574.191431  
Objective: The objective of the present study was to compare between two different clasp materials for the treatment of maxillary class II Kennedy classification clinically, radiographically. Materials and methods: Twenty male patients were selected for this study. The patients were divided into two groups. Each group consists of 10 patients. For group I each patient have maxillary removable partial denture that was constructed and retained by cobalt–chromium RPI clasp on the maxillary first premolar with cross arch stabilization (using double Aker clasp) on the other side. For group II each patient has the same except that the retentive I bar of RPI clasp was made of acetal resin. Patient satisfaction, clinical, and radiographic evaluations were carried out for every patient at insertion, 3, 6, and 9 months, the data were collected, tabulated, and statistically analyzed using t-test. Results: Satisfaction for the treatment. Group II patients were more satisfied of the treatment regarding aspects of the patients' comfort and esthetics. No significant difference in the aspects of phonetics, the ability to eat, prosthesis loosening, the gingival health, general satisfaction and food impaction between the two groups were found, also there were insignificant increase in the gingival recession, pocket depth, and plaque index around the abutments tooth in both groups. Radiographically, there was significant decrease in the bone height around the abutments in both groups. Conclusion: Removable partial denture with acetal resin clasp is better for esthetic and patient comfort. Good periodontal condition of the abutment tooth of both groups is maintained. Acetal resin clasp is the clasp of choice when esthetic is of primary concern to the patient.
  1,010 178 -
Coenzyme Q10 as a dietary supplement combined with topical corticosteroids in the treatment of erosive lesions of oral lichen planus
Malak Y Shoukheba, Enas A Elgendy
July-September 2016, 13(3):133-138
DOI:10.4103/1687-8574.191436  
Introduction: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic mucocutaneous disease with an immunological etiology. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) as an adjunctive to topical corticosteroids in the treatment of erosive–ulcerative lichen planus. Materials and methods: A total of 30 patients with a confirmed clinical diagnosis of OLP participated in this clinical trial. Patients were randomly allocated into one of two groups and treated as follows: group I received topical corticosteroids and group II received CoQ10 combined with topical corticosteroids. Assessment of outcome measures including clinical score and pain was carried out at the time of initial visit (baseline) and at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks following treatment protocol. All recorded data were analyzed using paired t-test and independent t-test. The level of significance was established at a P value of 0.05 or less. Results: The two studied groups showed a marked reduction in pain sensation and size of lesions, particularly in the final follow-up period. However, healing and decrease in the size of the lesions were effective in group II, and a significant difference was found between the two groups favoring group II over group I. Conclusion: CoQ10 in combination with topical corticosteroids was found to be effective in managing ulcerative lesions of OLP; however, more studies with a larger sample sizes and longer duration with evaluation of the adjunctive effect of CoQ10 on inflammatory markers expressed in OLP are recommended.
  1,087 92 -
Changes in surface roughness of bleached enamel by using different remineralizing agents
Reham M Attia, Mohammed M Kamel
October-December 2016, 13(4):179-186
DOI:10.4103/1687-8574.195707  
Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of fluoride gel, Remin Pro, and GC tooth mousse plus in changing surface roughness of enamel after bleaching procedures. Materials and methods Dental enamel blocks measuring 2 × 3 × 4 mm were prepared from nonerupted human third molars. The 38% hydrogen peroxide in-office bleaching protocols were performed. The specimens were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10 samples per group) according to the remineralizing agent used: group 1: using fluoride gel, group 2: using Remin Pro, and group 3: using GC tooth mousse plus. Measurements of surface roughness were carried out using a contact stylus profilometer before bleaching, after bleaching, and after remineralization. Results Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and Tukey's test. There was a highly significant difference of enamel surface roughness measurements among initial, after bleaching, and final regarding the three tested groups (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference among the three tested groups in relation to enamel surface roughness before and after bleaching (P = 0.739 and 0.341, respectively). There was a highly significant difference in relation to final measurements (P < 0.001) among the three tested groups. The difference in Ra value of enamel between the group used fluoride gel and that used Remin Pro and GC tooth mousse plus was highly significant and that between groups 2 and 3 was not significant. Conclusion GC tooth mousse plus and Remin Pro are more effective in reducing enamel surface roughness after bleaching than fluoride product.
  919 214 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Role of combination therapy/composite graft in periodontal regeneration: A mini review
Deepa Dhruvakumar, Chandni Gupta
October-December 2017, 14(4):169-172
DOI:10.4103/tdj.tdj_19_17  
Bone grafts are necessary to provide support, fill voids, and enhance biologic repair of skeletal defects. They are desired to be bioresorbable in nature and also to present no antigen-antibody reaction. Despite of the tremendous number of bone-graft substitutes that can be used in, there is no ideal bone graft that has the function capabilities and the potentiality to reduce the need for autograft. This paper reviews the role of the combination therapy for periodontal regeneration.
  775 294 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparative study of two types of attachments for mandibular implant-retained single complete overdenture
Maha M Abo Shady, Ibrahim R Eltorky, Zeinb M Abd Eaal
July-September 2016, 13(3):157-161
DOI:10.4103/1687-8574.191434  
Objective: The aim of this work is to compare between balls versus locator attachment systems for mandibular implant-retained single complete overdenture, as regards to clinical and radiographic evaluation. Materials and methods: Fourteen patients had lower edentulous jaw opposing almost natural dentition in the upper jaw was selected with their age ranging from 55 to 65 years. The patients were divided into two groups. Group I received single mandibular complete overdenture constructed over two implants, retained by ball attachments. Group II received single mandibular complete overdenture constructed over two implants, retained by locator attachments. Evaluation was carried out at regular appointments up to 1 year from time of loading of the implants. Each patient was presented to a questionnaire regarding retention, stability, comfort, chewing ability, esthetics, and speech. Clinically, the patients were evaluated as regards to gingival recession, pocket depth and implant stability. Radiographically, the patients were examined to determine the amount of marginal bone loss. Results: All fixtures were successfully osseointegrated all over the follow-up period. The results showed no significant difference in patient satisfaction between both groups (P = 0.827). Slight increase in the gingival recession was found in both groups throughout the time of observations, with no significant difference between both groups (P = 0.166). There was insignificant increased of the probing depth around the implants in both groups (P = 0.600). There was insignificant increase in implant stability in both groups throughout the follow-up periods (P = 0.839). No significant differences in bone loss were observed between both groups throughout the follow-up periods (P = 0.524 and <0.05). Conclusion: Two implants were sufficient to retain a single mandibular complete overdenture opposing maxillary natural dentition without hazardous effect on the implants.
  882 127 -
Clinical and radiographic evaluation of implant-supported removable partial overdenture in the lower Kennedy class IV cases
Wesam M El-Rashedy, Eman A Shakal, Mohammed N El Gendy, Hussein I Saudi
January-March 2016, 13(1):1-10
DOI:10.4103/1687-8574.186940  
Introduction The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of implant-supported partial overdenture design in restoring mandibular long class IV Kennedy's classification on the supporting structure, both clinically and radiographically. Materials and methods Ten partially edentulous patients with lower six anterior teeth missing were selected. Their ages ranged from 40 to 50 years. Each patient received two dental implants placed in the lower edentulous span at the canine area bilaterally. Ball-and-socket attachment (polycarbonate housing with rubber O-ring) was used between the implant and the overlay removable partial denture for retention. Periodic evaluation was carried out for every patient before denture insertion and then after 3, 6, and 9 months. As regards the clinical evaluation, the probing depth, gingival level, and attachment level around the implants were recorded. The radiographic evaluation included the use of specially developed software for measuring the alveolar bone density in gray scales and the bone height in pixels for the implants and the residual alveolar ridges. Results All implants were highly successfully osseointegrated at the end of this study. There was a statistically nonsignificant increase in the clinical parameters (probing depth, gingival level, and attachment level) around the dental implants throughout the 9-month follow-up period after denture insertion. Radiographically, there was a nonsignificant increase in bone loss, but a significant increase in bone density around the dental implants and the alveolar ridge throughout the follow-up period. Conclusion From the previous results, it was found that the concept of immediate loaded dental implant was efficient to be used successfully in the mandibular long Kennedy class IV to retain the partial overdenture.
  856 132 -
Assessment of Roods and Shehab criteria if one or more radiological signs are present in orthopantomogram and position of the mandibular canal in relation to the third molar apices using cone beam computed tomography: a radiographic study
Rajeev Pandey, Chinnaswami Ravindran, Deepak Pandiyan, Amit Gupta, Anju Aggarwal, Srikanth Aryasri
January-March 2018, 15(1):33-38
DOI:10.4103/tdj.tdj_53_17  
Aim The aim was to access Roods and Shehab criteria if one or more radiological signs are present in orthopantomogram and position of the mandibular canal in relation to the third molar apices using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and methods A total of 25 orthopantomogram radiographs exhibiting close relationship between mandibular third molar apices and mandibular canal according to Roods and Shehab criteria were accessed for cortical integrity along with position of the canal using CBCT. Results CBCT images showed that about 63.8% of the teeth were in contact (loss of cortical integrity) with mandibular canal. All Teeth with two or more radiological signs showed contact. The position of the canal was buccal in 61.7% of cases followed by inferior placement in 23.4% of the cases. Conclusion Risk of injury to inferior alveolar nerve increases if two or more radiological signs are present. In our study buccally placed inferior alveolar nerve was seen in more often therefore operator should not gutter the bone below the middle third of the root and mesial point of application for elevation should be used in cases with radiological signs of close association between the nerve and the root apex.
  878 99 -
Laboratory comparative study of three different types of clasp materials
Nahla Y Abdel-Rahim, Fadel E Abd El-Fattah, Mohamed M El-Sheikh
January-March 2016, 13(1):41-49
DOI:10.4103/1687-8574.186936  
Purpose The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the retentive strength of 3 clasp materials Acetal resin (Ac), Cobalt- Chrome (Co-Cr) alloy and Nickel-Chrome (Ni-Cr) alloy before and after cyclic loading. Materials and methods A total of 72 clasps (24 clasps for each material) were fabricated on standardized metallic molar models. The clasps of each material were divided into 3 groups 8 clasps each according to degree of undercuts (0.01, 0.02 & 0.03 inch). Each clasp assembly was subjected to 730, 1460, 2190 and 2920 cycles of insertion and removal of a removable partial denture. Retentive strength was measured before and after each cyclic period. Retentive strength values were analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD multiple comparison test at the 0.05 level of significance. Results Ac clasps had significantly lower retentive strength than Co-Cr and Ni-Cr clasps. Clasps with 0.01 inch undercut showed significantly less retention than clasps with 0.02 inch undercut and the latter showed significantly less retention than clasps with 0.03 inch undercut. All clasps exhibited continuous significant decrease in retentive strength from the first period of cyclic loading till the end of the cycling except for Acetal resin at 0.01 inch undercut which show no significant difference after 730 cyclic loading. Conclusion There was significant decrease in retentive strength of the 3 clasp materials.
  810 143 -
Microscopic study of surface roughness of four orthodontic arch wires
Atia A Yousif, Usama M Abd El-Karim
October-December 2016, 13(4):199-207
DOI:10.4103/1687-8574.195714  
Aim/purpose Comparative evaluation of surface roughness of stainless steel (SS), nitinol (NiTi), titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA) and copper nitinol (Cu NiTi) orthodontic arch wires before and after clinical use to find the smoothest wire surface best used in orthodontic sliding mechanics. Materials and methods Surface roughness of 40 arch wires divided into four groups (group 1: 10 SS arch wires, group 2: 10 NiTi arch wires, group 3: 10 TMA arch wires and group 4: 10 Cu NiTi arch wires) were measured at five different points for each wire before and after its clinical use in oral cavity for 4 weeks using atomic force microscope and optical digital microscope. All obtained data was statistically tested. Results SS arch wires had the smoothest surface (average roughness: 17.38 μm for new wires and 104.1 μm for used wires) and Cu NiTi arch wires had the roughest surface (average roughness: 221.12 μm for new wires and 499 μm for used wires) with high significant differences between both groups either new or used arch wires (P < 0.001). High significant difference was found between new and used wires for all groups. NiTi wires had greater surface roughness (average roughness: 211.8 μm for new wires and 313.8 for used wires) than TMA wires (average roughness: 138.5 μm for new wires and 221.2 μm for used wires). Conclusion SS orthodontic arch wires exhibited the least amount of surface roughness and advocated to be used in sliding mechanics to minimize the friction during orthodontic tooth movements.
  790 139 -
Bite force and oral health impact profile in completely edentulous patients rehabilitated with two different types of denture bases
Hassan M Sakr, Mostafa Fayad
October-December 2017, 14(4):173-180
DOI:10.4103/tdj.tdj_5_17  
Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate bite force and oral health impact profile (OHIP) in completely edentulous patients rehabilitated with two different types of denture bases. Patients and methods A total of 26 patients were selected from outpatient clinic, Removable Prosthodontic Department, Al-Azhar University. For each patient two types of complete dentures were made: (a) a heat-polymerizing hard Polymethyle-methacrylate (PMMA) and (b) thermoplastic PMMA. Bite force were evaluated 1 month and 6 months after denture insertion. Oral health-related quality of life was measured after 6 months of denture use using modified OHIP scale for edentulous patients. The data were statistically analyzed using statistical package for the social sciences V21 software. Results After 6 months of denture insertion, the bite force with a thermoplastic PMMA was better than that of heat-polymerizing hard PMMA with statistically significance difference. After 6 months, the OHIP for thermoplastic PMMA recorded better values more than a heat-polymerizing hard PMMA. Conclusion A thermoplastic PMMA denture was found to significantly has better maximum bite force values and OHIP after 6 months of denture use as compared to heat-polymerizing hard PMMA complete dentures.
  747 141 -
Role of CD44 and cortactin in metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma
Yomna S Abd El-Aziz, Eman M. E. Megahed, Wafaa A. E. Mostafa, Iman M Ezzo
April-June 2017, 14(2):62-67
DOI:10.4103/tdj.tdj_59_16  
Context: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common form of head and neck cancer, and over the last decade its incidence has increased by 50%. The tendency of OSCC for local and regional metastasis is high and this is thought to be the greatest contributor to the morbidity and mortality associated with OSCC. Aim: The aim of this study was directed to evaluate the role of both cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) and cortactin (CTTN) in lymph node (LN) metastasis of OSCC. Materials and methods: The study groups comprised blocks of OSCC with LN metastasis (n = 20) and blocks of OSCC without LN metastasis (n = 20). The blocks were prepared for immunohistochemical staining for CD44 and CTTN. Results: The result of this study revealed significant correlation between expression of both CD44 and CTTN and LN metastasis. Conclusion: From the present study, it can be concluded that assessment of CD44 and CTTN in OSCC represent an important tool for prediction of risk of metastasis for each case and the significant correlation between CD44 and CTTN could provide insights of their critical role in metastasis.
  722 151 -
Dental age assessment among a group of children in Tanta city
Abdrhman M Azzawi, Amina M El Hosary, Amal M Ezzat
April-June 2016, 13(2):89-95
DOI:10.4103/1687-8574.188906  
Objectives The aim of this study was to assess dental age among a group of children in Tanta city by using the Demirjian method. Materials and methods A sample of 400 children aged 5–13 years were selected from the Pedodontic and Orthodontic clinics, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University. All patients had to undergo panoramic radiography during their course of treatment. Dental maturity was assessed. Results Both boys and girls showed advanced dental age compared with their chronological age, which was found to be statistically significant. Boys were 0.208 years and girls were 0.294 years ahead. Conclusion The Demirjian standard is not applicable to Egyptian children and a new adapted dental score for Egyptians must be established for each sex and age separately.
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Fracture resistance of roots obturated with a single expandable polymer cone
Mohamed A Elayed, Abeer A Elgendy
January-March 2017, 14(1):25-29
DOI:10.4103/tdj.tdj_57_16  
Endodontically treated teeth are considered to be more susceptible to fracture than vital teeth, therefore various obturation materials and methods have been used to reinforce them and decrease the incidence of vertical root fractures. The aim of this study was to compare root fracture resistance after filling either with smartseal system (PropointPT cone and Smart-paste Bio sealer) or with gutta-percha in combination with either MTA Fillapex or AH Plus sealers. Sixty single-canal extracted teeth were selected. The crowns were removed and the roots were prepared with ProTaper rotary system to size F4, roots were divided into four groups according to obturation system (n = 15). Group 1: smartseal system, specimens were filled with a bioceramic sealer (Smart-paste Bio), and F4 PropointPT. Group 2: were filled with MTA Fillapex and F4 gutta-percha single cone. Group 3: were filled with AH Plus sealer and F4 gutta-percha single cone. In group 4, the roots were neither shaped nor filled and served as negative control. All specimens were tested in a universal testing machine as the force at the time of fracture was recorded in Newtons. Data were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance. Roots in the negative control group and smartseal group showed significantly higher values (380.7 ± 59 N) and (347.2 ± 56 N) respectively. There was no significant difference between the MTA Fillapex/gutta-percha and AH Plus/gutta-percha groups (227.4 ± 43 N) and (254.4 ± 55 N), respectively. It can be concluded that the smartseal system did improve the fracture resistance of the endodontically treated roots more than MTA Fillapex/gutta-percha or AH Plus/gutta-percha combinations.
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Cleaning efficacy of rotary versus manual system for root canal preparation in primary teeth
Momen H Elnagar, Nagwa A Ghoname, Walaa M Ghoneim
January-March 2018, 15(1):14-18
DOI:10.4103/tdj.tdj_43_17  
Introduction Primary teeth are considered natural space maintainers and should be maintained till their exfoliation is chronologically appropriate. The success of endodontic treatment is directly related to the microbial reduction in the root canal system as a result of chemomechanical preparation. Objective This study was carried out to evaluate and compare cleaning efficacy of rotary and manual systems for root canal preparation in primary teeth. Materials and methods Thirty extracted single-rooted human primary teeth were selected. In group I the root canals were instrumented manually with Ni-Ti Flex K-file. Revo-S rotary instruments were used for canal preparation in group II. Irrigation with 1% sodium hypochlorite was done at each file change. Roots were split longitudinally and processed for scanning electron microscope examination. For evaluation of cleaning efficiency two separate scores were used for evaluation of debris and smear layer at three root canal thirds. Results However, both techniques did not achieve complete clean walls, Revo-S rotary system achieved better cleanliness than that obtained by manual instrumentation at all root canal levels. Conclusion Revo-S rotary system might be an alternative method for preparing root canal in primary teeth with better cleaning efficiency.
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Solvent-free self-etch adhesive as a breakthrough in bonding technology: Fact or fiction?
Emad A Abo-Alazm, Rehab K Safy, Mohamed M Zayed
April-June 2016, 13(2):83-88
DOI:10.4103/1687-8574.188908  
Objective The aim of this study was to compare the microshear bond strength (μSBS) and adhesive dentin interfacial ultramorphology of a solvent-free self-etch adhesive with those of a solvent-containing adhesive. Materials and methods Twenty caries-free third molars were used to prepare specimens of dentin surfaces. Ten specimens were prepared for each material. Specimen surfaces were further divided according to the prepared dentin surface into superficial and deep. The adhesives were applied on dentin surfaces according to the manufacturer's instructions, after which Filtek Z250 XT composite resin was condensed through a polyethylene tube with a 0.75-mm internal diameter and 1-mm height attached firmly to the dentin surfaces and light cured. The bonded specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h before being tested. The μSBS values of the adhesives to dentin were evaluated and the collected data were analyzed statistically using one-way analysis of variance. In addition, in each experimental group, three specimens were prepared for analysis under scanning electron microscopy. Results There was a significant difference in μSBS between solvent-free self-etch adhesives and solvent-containing adhesives. Scanning electron microscopic findings confirmed the results. Conclusion Elimination of the solvent from a self-etch adhesive systems hindered the infiltration of adhesive components into dentin, which affects the bonding quality of resin composite to dentin.
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