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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-September 2017
Volume 14 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 105-168

Online since Monday, September 11, 2017

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Flaxseed oil: an emerging nutraceutical decimates cisplatin-induced submandibular salivary glands damage in rats p. 105
Doaa A Labah, Omneya M Wahba
Objective The study aimed to investigate the capability of flaxseed oil (FXO) to alleviate the degenerative effect of chemotherapy with cisplatin (CP) on rats' submandibular salivary glands (SMGs). Materials and methods Rats were allocated equally into four groups: control, CP-treated, FXO-treated, and CP-FXO-treated groups. Rats of third and fourth groups were orally given a daily dose of FXO. After 10 days, rats in second and fourth groups were injected with a single dose of CP. After rat sacrifice, samples of SMGs were processed for histological, ultrastructural study beside immunohistochemical staining for Ki67 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expressions. Analysis of variance was used to compare Ki67 and VEGF expressions between groups. Results The SMGs of CP group showed abnormal architecture when compared with control and FXO groups. CP group treated with FXO revealed architecture improvement in their SMGs. Immunohistochemical study revealed significant decrease in Ki67 and VEGF expressions in CP rats. However, CP group treated with FXO simulated control group in both Ki67 and VEGF expressions. Conclusion CP administration caused deleterious effects on rats' SMGs. However, dietary consumption of FXO was able to ameliorate CP effects. Hence, FXO intake is recommended simultaneously during chemotherapy with CP.
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Monosodium glutamate-induced genotoxicity in rat palatal mucosa p. 112
Saher S Mohammed
Background Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is an accepted commonly used flavor enhancer and food additive. However, incautious abuse of this food additive may occur because of its abundance, mostly without labeling, in many food ingredients. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the genotoxic potential of MSG on rat palatal mucosa. Materials and methods Forty-two mature albino rats weighing 200–250 g at the age of 6 weeks were used in this study. They were allocated to evenly three groups, each group of 14 animals. Group I was maintained as control group. Rats in group II and group III were administered MSG at two different doses, 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight respectively for 2 months. Palatal mucosa samples were dissected then divided into two halves. The first half was fixed in formal saline solution then processed to be stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain. The second half was frozen to be prepared for the molecular study. Results General histological examination presented acanthosis and hyperkeratosis in group II while group III revealed papillary fold projections and bulbous shaped rete pegs together with atypical cellular changes in the basal cell layer of the oral epithelium. Molecular results proved marked reduction in DNA quality and quantity in both experimental groups in comparison to control group. The reduction in DNA quantity was more pronounced in group III using four different primers. Conclusion It was concluded that MSG has genotoxic effects on the palatal mucosa of rats that was clearly detected in routine histological findings and DNA molecular results.
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The effect of different bioactive materials on the odontogenic differentiation potential of dental pulp stem cells using two different culture mediums p. 120
Dalia A Mohamed, Dalia M Fayyad
Context The main target in vital pulp therapy and regenerative procedures is to preserve or regenerate the pulp vitality via progenitor stem cells differentiation into secretory terminal cells. This differentiation was suggested to be triggered by the direct contact with the capping material. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of three bioactive materials on the odontogenic differentiation potential of human dental pulp stem cells using two different culture mediums. Patients and methods Nanohydroxyapatite, mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium enriched mixture cements were mixed and molded into equal sized cylinders. Isolated dental pulp stem cells from human third molars were characterized and then, the cultured cells were classified according to biomaterials supplementation in odontogenic differentiation medium or in growth medium. Cells without biomaterial supplementation in differentiation medium or in growth medium were served as positive and negative control respectively. After 14 days of incubation, alizarin red staining test was carried out to detect the presence of mineralized nodules in addition to measuring the relative expressions of the odontogenic differentiation genes in the cells by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCRs. Results Biomaterials cultured with odontogenically induced dental pulp stem cells had more significantly odontogenic differentiation potential than those cultured with uninduced dental pulp stem cells or than dental pulp stem cells cultured with differentiation medium only. Conclusion All tested materials can promote the odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells. Therefore, they can be considered as bioactive materials for pulp capping and regenerative applications.
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Mechanical properties of contemporary resin composites determined by nanoindentation p. 129
Nabawy A Alrobeigy
Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the Young's modulus (E) and nanohardness (H) of recently developed high viscosity bulk-fill and self-adhering resin composites by using nanoindentation technique. The effect of water aging on these properties was also studied. Materials and methods Four resin composites that fall into the categories of conventional (Filtek Z250 XT; FZ), high viscosity bulk-fill (Filtek Bulk-Fill Restorative Posterior), flowable (Filtek Supreme Ultra Flowable), and self-adhering flowable (Vertise Flow) were evaluated in this study. Ten disc specimens (5 mm × 2 mm) were prepared from each material. After polishing, half the specimens of each material (n = 5) were dry stored and the other half stored in distilled water for 30 days at 37°C. The E and H were determined by nanoindentation test using Bruker CETR-Apex nanoindenter. Ten indentations were made on top surface of each specimen. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance and paired t-test. Results All materials were significantly different from each other regarding both E and H in both testing circumstances. A 30-day water storage caused a significant decrease in E and H of all tested composites except for Filtek Bulk-Fill Restorative Posterior, where its E increased and its H not affected. There was a positive correlation between E and H. Conclusion Generally, both E and H were significantly increased when the filler content increased and they were significantly affected by 30-day water aging. E and H were affected not only by the filler content but also by the quality of resin matrix particularly after water storage.
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Study of locator attachment effect in implant-assisted complete lower over denture opposed with dentulous versus edentulous upper arch p. 139
Faten A Abu Taleb, Zainab M Abel-Aal
Background Rehabilitation of edentulous mandible opposing natural maxillary teeth is associated with many problems. The advent of implants provides a treatment modality that allows the remaining maxillary teeth to be kept. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate clinically and Radiographically the effect of locator attachment in implant-assisted complete versus single lower overdenture. Materials and methods Twelve patients were selected for this study, half of them were completely edentulous and the other half had edentulous mandible opposing dentulous maxilla. All patients received a lower complete overdenture constructed over two implants, placed at the canine region and retained with locator attachment. Each patient was presented to a questionnaire. The patients were evaluated as regards implant stability, gingival recession, and probing depth. Radiographically, the patients were examined to determine the amount of marginal bone loss. Results The results showed no significant difference in patient satisfaction between the two groups. As regarding the implant stability, gingival recession and probing depth, there was a significant difference of both groups during the follow up period, but the difference was insignificant between both groups at the same follow-up period. Radiographically, there was a significant marginal bone loss during the follow-up period of both groups. In comparing between the two groups, there was an insignificant difference in bone loss between the two groups after 6 months while after 12 months, the difference was signify cant. Locator attachment exhibit high denture stability, better patient satisfaction and accepted clinical parameters and alveolar bone resorption when opposed by dentulous maxilla.
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Variance of occlusion among preschool monozygotic twins p. 148
Talat M Beltagy
Aim The aim of this study was carried to assess the occlusion in primary dentition among preschool monozygotic pairs. Participants and methods A cross-sectional study was performed on 20 pairs of healthy monozygotic twins of both sexes, aged 3–5 years. Occlusal measures included primary molar and canine relationships, the degree of overjet, overbite, anterior and posterior cross-bite. Space discrepancies included primate and physiologic spaces, and crowding. Arch dimensions included arch circumference, crown tooth width, palatal depth, and primary intermolar and intercanine widths. Results The results showed a very strong and significant relation for primary molar and canine relationships, for mandibular and maxillary tooth widths, and for palatal depth. A strong relation was found for overbite and for mandibular and maxillary arch circumferences. Meanwhile, a moderate and significant relation was found for overjet, and for intercanine and intermolar widths in both arches. Conclusion The occlusal variables showed a very strong intrapair correlation coefficient for all parameters except for arch circumferences and overbite which showed a strong correlation, whereas interarch widths and overjet showed moderate correlation. Therefore, the variance of occlusion in this study is suggested that the pairs are similar but not identical.
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Molecular study to the effect of monosodium glutamate on rat gingiva p. 155
Mohammed T Shredah
Background Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a flavor enhancer widely used throughout the world. It is the salt of glutamic acid, one of the naturally occurring amino acids. It is produced commercially and has classified as generally recognized as safe. Nevertheless, it has been alleged to cause many ills. Objective The present work aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effects of MSG on the rat gingiva. Materials and methods Thirty adult Wistar rats weighting 150–250 g at the age of 6–8 weeks were used in this study. They were partitioned evenly into three groups, each group of 10 rats. Group 1 was the first group that was maintained as control group. Group 2 was the first experimental group while group 3 was the second experimental group. Rats in groups 2 and 3 were administered MSG at two different doses, 15 and 30 mg/kg body weight respectively for 6 weeks. Each gingival tissue sample was divided evenly to be processed and prepared for routine histological examination and molecular study. Results Using hematoxylin and eosin stain, gingival sections presented variable structural changes in both experimental groups including hyperchromatism, pleomorphism of basal cell layer and cytoplasmic basophilia. Group 2 showed areas of epithelial atrophy while group 3 presented acanthosis and hyperkeratosis. Analysis of DNA extracted from gingival tissue samples using five different primers showed marked decrease in the DNA quality. The genotoxic effect of MSG was more declared in group 3 that exhibited the least numbers of bands created with the tested five primers. Conclusion It can be concluded that MSG is genotoxic agent to gingival tissue that has deleterious effects on DNA. These effects were clearly detected in the molecular study and supported by the routine histological findings of the current work.
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Effect of addition of chitosan on water sorption, solubility and microhardness of glass ionomer cement p. 164
Eman M. S Elbahrawy, Ramy A. Abdel Rahim
Background A glass ionomer cement (GIC) restorative materials is commonly used in dentistry for permanent cementation of indirect restorations, liner, base or as atraumatic restorative treatment for the restoration of primary teeth, especially in developing countries. Water sorption and solubility of dental cement could be a primary cause of restoration failure. Early moisture contamination on luting cements during setting results not only in an increased loss of substance but also a reduction of physical properties especially its surface hardness. Chitosan can improve the mechanical properties of GICs and decrease its solubility, therefore it is necessary to do research on the solubility, water sorption and surface hardness of the chitosan modified GICs. Aim This study was aimed to investigate the effect of addition of chitosan to the liquid of GIC on water sorption, solubility and microhardness of GIC. Materials and methods Commercially available powder/liquid restorative GIC was used in this study. A total of 60 samples were used in this study. The GIC samples was divided into samples of conventional GIC as a control (group I), GIC modified with 25% (v/v) chitosan solution (group II) and GIC modified with 50% (v/v) chitosan solution (group III). Water sorption and solubility results obtained from the difference between the weights of samples before and after immersion in an incubator and after dehydration. The samples with 6 mm diameter and 3 mm thickness were used for Vickers microhardness test. Results were subjected to analysis of variance and Tukey's test. Results The addition of chitosan to GIC may increase water sorption of GIC and decreased its solubility. The addition of chitosan to GIC significantly decreased its surface hardness. Conclusion The modification of GIC liquid with chitosan showed to be more effective in decreasing the solubility of GIC. However, the microhardness may significantly decrease with chitosan incorporation in polyacrylic acid liquid.
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