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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-September 2018
Volume 15 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 127-198

Online since Wednesday, October 10, 2018

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Recent trends in implant dentistry: A mini-review p. 127
Shatakshi Sharma, Deepa Dhruvakumar
The issue of osseointegration serving as the endpoint of implant therapy is no longer relevant. The long-term health and stability of the implant, prosthesis, and peri-implant tissues are the most desirable outcomes for implant therapy however recent advances have been developed to support the fabrication of a fixed provisional prosthesis that provides implant patients with improved esthetics and function during the osseointegration period. However with the advent of new technologies and materials the success and failures of these materials still remains in question and have to be evaluated. This paper presents an overview of the recent trends in implant dentistry.
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Clinical evaluation of three adhesive systems in class V carious lesions p. 132
Kholood E Morsy, Ali I Abdalla, Magda E Shalaby
Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of three types of adhesive systems (Futurabond universal adhesive in a self-etch mode, Tetric N-bond self-etch adhesive, and Single bond universal adhesive in a total etch mode) in class V carious lesions over 1 year. Materials and methods A total of 20 patients with three carious cervical lesions were participated in this study after obtaining informed consent. A total of 60 restorations were placed. The distributions of adhesive materials and the teeth locations were randomized. Cavities were prepared limited to just removal of carious lesions with incisal and gingival margins in enamel and beveling of incisal cavosurface margin. All adhesives were applied following manufacturer's directions. All cavities were restored with Grandio SO composite resin following manufacturer's directions. Finishing and polishing was performed using finishing burs and polishing discs. Each restoration was clinically evaluated at baseline (24 h), 6 months and 1 year for retention, margin integrity, margin discoloration, secondary caries, and postoperative sensitivity using modified United state public health service (USPHS) criteria. Results The recall rate was 100% after 1 year. Also the retention rate for all restorations was 100% after 1 year. Using χ2-test, there was no statistically significant differences between the tested groups at all evaluation periods regarding marginal adaptation, marginal discoloration, and postoperative sensitivity (P > 0.05). None of restoration had secondary caries at any evaluation period. Conclusion Within the limitation of this short-term evaluation, there was no significant clinical difference between adhesives. Clinical significances All tested adhesive systems achieved excellent results after 1 year of clinical service.
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Evaluation of marginal seal of different composite restored class V cavity preparations with different cavosurface margins p. 140
Israa O Nagy, Hussein Y El-Sayed, Magda E Shalaby
Purpose The aim was to evaluate and compare the marginal seal of Class V composite restored with different cavosurface margins. Materials and methods A standardized Class V cavity, 4 mm wide, 3 mm high, and 3 mm deep, were prepared on the buccal surface of 60 extracted molars with the occlusal margin located in enamel and the gingival margin located in dentin-cementum 1.0 mm below the cementoenamel junction. The teeth were divided into two main groups: group I, cavosurface angle was 90° butt-joint; group II, beveled enamel and dentin cavosurface margins. Each group subdivided into three subgroups: group A, restored with Filtek bulk-fill flowable composite. Group B, restored with Filtek bulk-fill posterior composite. Group C, restored with Filtek Z250XT Universal composite. Restorations were cured with LED light curing unit. All specimens were stored in 37°C and 100% humidity for 24 h, thermo cycled for 600 cycles with baths held between 5 and 55°C, a dwell time of 30 s and a transfer time of 10 s. The restored coronal portion were cut 3 mm beyond the cementoenamel junction, each specimen were sectioned in bucco–lingual direction through the center of each restoration resulting in two sections. The cut surfaces were examined at the occlusal and gingival margins using a stereomicroscope at 30× magnification with an attached digital camera. Results There was significant difference in microleakage between the three tested materials where flowable bulk-fill showed a lower degree of microleakage than posterior bulk-fill and conventional composite at P value of less than 0.05 and there was a degree of significant in microleakage at occlusal and gingival margin where occlusal margins showed the a lowest degree of microleakage. Conclusion There was significant inverse correlation between flowable bulk-fill and conventional composite and high significant between occlusal and gingival margin and there is no need for a bevel in Class V carious lesions.
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Nanohydroxyapatite versus melatonin loaded on nanohydroxyapatite and nanohydroxyapatite with platelet rich fibrin on the treatment of intrabony defects p. 148
Doaa A Yousef, Amal A Al Hessy, Abd Al Aziz A. Saeed, Eman S El Shamy
Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare, clinically, the effect of nanohydroxyapatite alone versus melatonin loaded nanohydroxyapatite and nanohydroxyapatite with platelet rich fibrin (PRF) in the treatment of intrabony defects in patients with severe chronic periodontitis. Patients and methods A total of 30 sites in patients with, severe chronic periodontitis, with clinical attachment loss (CAL) of at least five were included. Sites were allocated randomly to be treated with nanohydroxyapatite alone, melatonin loaded nanohydroxyapatite, nanohydroxyapatite with PRF. At baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery, the parameters are pocket depth, CAL, bleeding on probing. The experimental included six rabbits, where four identical bony defects, two in each mandible side, were created and each filled with one of the three materials. The fourth defect was left with no filler to serve as the control. Two rabbits were killed 2 weeks after the surgery, the second two rabbits, after 4 weeks and the third two rabbits, after 6 weeks. Samples were collected for histological and histomorphometric analysis. Results All groups showed significant improvement in all clinical parameters (pocket depth, bleeding on probing, and CAL) after 3, 6, and 12 months compared with baseline measures. Groups II and III showed statistically significant reduction when compared with group I. Histopathological findings were evidenced by histomorphometric analysis, as it revealed statistically significant difference in favor of group II when compared with the other groups at all evaluation periods except with group III at 6 weeks. Statistically significant difference in favor of group III when compared with group I and control group at all evaluation periods. Conclusion Either melatonin or PRF when combined with nanohydroxyapatite showed better comparable results, clinically, and histopathologically when compared with nanohydroxyapatite alone and can therefore be considered as a potentiating material for periodontal regeneration.
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Applicability of CentroGraphic analysis in evaluation of morphologic characteristics of Egyptian adult sample p. 164
Mohamed Sameh El Kholy, Safaa A Ghobashy, Neveen M Fakhry
Objective The aim of this study was to find the applicability of the CentroGraphic analysis to evaluate the skeletal, dental, and soft tissue morphologic characteristics of Egyptian adult sample with different classes of malocclusion, and to compare the CentroGraphic analysis with the conventional cephalometric measurements. Patients and methods A sample of 208 lateral cephalometric radiographs, of Egyptian orthodontic patients with age ranging from 18 to 25 years old, was analyzed twice by both the CentroGraphic and the conventional methods. Ten cephalometric measurements were assessed and the findings of which were compared with those of the CentroGraphic analysis. χ2-test was applied to test the statistical relationship between them. Results A nonsignificant statistical relationship was found between both the methods in evaluating the anteroposterior skeletal positions of maxilla and mandible. Regarding the vertical skeletal pattern, a nonsignificant relationship upon comparing the mandibular plane (SN/MP) angle with the position of the facial centroid (FC), a significant relationship between angle y-axis to the Frankfort horizontal plane and position of FC, and a highly significant relationship between the ratio of lower anterior facial height to the total face height and the position of the FC were revealed. Highly significant relationships were evident on comparing both methods for evaluating the axial inclinations of the upper and lower incisors. Highly significant relationships were found between both methods for the assessment of upper and lower lips. Conclusion The CentroGraphic analysis is a quick and easy method of analysis of the cephalometric radiographs that can be used as an adjunctive method to evaluate the vertical skeletal, dental, and soft tissue morphologic characteristics of Egyptian adults.
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The relationship between the temporomandibular joint radiographic changes and the duration of rheumatoid arthritis p. 173
Walid S Salem, Ahmed Bakry
Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic disease affecting many body joint. In the later stage of RA it affects the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The extent of TMJ association is by all accounts correlated with the seriousness of RA. There is a contentions with respect to the correlation between the duration of RA and temporomandibular joint dysfunction. The aim of this study was to determine if there is a relation between the RA duration and the radiographic finding in the TMJ. Patients and methods A total of 36 patients range in age between 45 and 55 years, were divided into three groups, group 1: 12 patients with RA for at least 10 years and are on a regular treatment and follow-up, group 2: 12 patients with RA recently discovered and less than 5 years diseased, group 3: 12 normal patients (control group) and the radiographic bony changes are recorded in each group as well as the space between the condyle and the glenoid fossa. Results In group 1 and group 2 all the cases have at least one of the bone involvement, while in the control group only 50% of the cases complaining from at least one of the bone involvement which is mainly condyle erosion. Regarding the space between the condyle and the glenoid fossa in group 1 show more reduced space than the other groups, followed by group 2. Conclusion The present study revealed the RA duration increase damaging effect on the condyle and articular eminence even if the patient is under treatment. The RA also leads to anterior displacement of the condyle and this percentage increase with the RA duration.
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Hazards of soft modern food on the periodontium of adult albino rats p. 178
Gihan S Hassan, Reda G Saleh, Dalia H Zahran
Background The ever-increasing widespread use of modern fast food with its soft consistency strongly argues for its deleterious effects on the periodontium ligament (PDL). Aim The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of soft diet consistency on the integrity of the periodontium of adult Albino rats and its reversibility by shifting into normal diet consistency. Materials and methods A total of 15 adult male Albino rats, 6 weeks of age were used. The animals were divided randomly into three equal groups; control group received hard diet for 6 weeks, the experimental group received soft diet for a period of 6 weeks while the recovery group received soft diet as experimental group and then changed to hard ordinary diet for another 4 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, all animals were anaesthetized and the mandible was dissected then the animals were euthanized. The periodontium of the molar region was examined by light microscope and scanning electron microscope. The thickness of PDL was also calculated and statistically analyzed. Results Soft diet administration in the experimental group led to thick and proliferated junctional epithelium, dissimilarity of the width of the PDL on both sides of the root, bony projections at the wide side of the PDL, disorganized PDL bundles and resorption of alveolar bone, cementum and dentin at the narrow side of the PDL. In the recovery group, some improvement of the periodontium was evident as detected by light and scanning electron microscope examinations. Statistical analysis revealed that PDL thickness decreased significantly in the experimental group compared to other groups. Conclusion The soft consistency of modern fast food disturbs the structural integrity of the periodontium and their hazards can be prevented by avoiding fast food consumption.
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The impact of β-thalassemia major on dental maturity in children at different stages of dental development (In TDJ, we do not quey for manuf details) p. 186
Gehan L Abdel Hakeem, Ashraf M Abdel Fadil, Amro Moness M. Ali, Tarek H Abu El Qasem
Purpose Assess the dental maturity in B thalassemic children at different stages of dental development. Patients and methods Fifty-four β-thalassemia patients were enrolled and classified into: group Ia, 16 patients with age range 3–6 years; group Ib, 18 patients with age 6–12 years; and group Ic, 20 patients older than 12 years. Another 25 healthy children were enrolled as controls. All involved children were subjected to clinical examination stressing on the anthropometric measures, complete blood count, serum ferritin, and oral panoramic radiograph to assess the dental age which is plotted on the charts to assess the dental age centile and dental maturity score. Results Significant differences were found between patients and control regarding serum ferritin (P = 0.001), hemoglobin level (P = 0.001), height (P = 0. 001), BMI (P = 0.009), dental age centile (P = 0.02). Dental age was positively correlated with age (P = 0.001, r = 0.9) and serum ferritin level (P = 0.009, r = 0.4). Dental age centile was negatively correlated with age (P = 0.001, r=−0.5) and serum ferritin level (P = 0.001, r=−0.6). Dental maturity score was positively correlated with age (P = 0.001, r = 0.9), age of start transfusion (P = 0.008, r = 0.4) and serum ferritin level (P = 0.002, r = 0.4).
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Microtensile bond strength of self-etching adhesives to enamel p. 192
Ahmed Z Elhoshy, Karim Aboelenein
Purpose It is uncertain whether single-step self-etching adhesives form bond to enamel as reliable as those of etch-and-rinse adhesives. This study compared the microtensile bond strengths to ground enamel of three one-step self-etching adhesive systems, a self-etching primer system and an etch-and-rinse adhesive system. Materials and methods Human enamel was ground flat with 320-grit silicon carbide paper. The self-etching adhesives Clearfil Tri S Bond (Kuraray), Futurabond NR (Voco) and Hybrid Bond (Sun-Medical), the adhesive with a self-etching primer Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray) and the etch-and-rinse adhesive Admira Bond (Voco) were applied as directed, followed by a core of the same manufacturers' hybrid resin composite. A microtensile bond strength evaluation was performed after 48 h of water storage, using untrimmed beams ~1.0 ± 0.1 mm2 in cross-sectional area at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min. Results There were no pretest failures in any group, and failures were predominately adhesive or mixed. Adhesion to enamel of Futurabond NR and Clearfil SE Bond was not significantly different from Admira Bond, while Clearfil Tri S Bond and Hybrid Bond demonstrated significantly lower bond strengths (one-way analysis of variance, Tukey–Kramer multiple-comparison test, P < 0.05). Clinical significance Bond strength to ground enamel of self-etching adhesive systems was dependant on the type of adhesive and some materials showed bond strength that was not different than that of etch-and-rinse system.
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