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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
October-December 2019
Volume 16 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 169-220

Online since Friday, February 28, 2020

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Comparative study to correlate between two different radiographically determined condylar inclination with different facial forms in completely edentulous patients p. 169
Athi Rai A, Muthu Kumar B, Brintha J. Jei
DOI:10.4103/tdj.tdj_30_18  
Context Many studies have determined condylar inclination (CI) by various clinical and radiography methods. But there was no previous study to find the correlation between facial forms and CI. So, this study made an effort to find any relation that exists between facial forms and CI in completely edentulous patients. Aim This study determined the relation of CI of completely edentulous patients in square, square tapering, tapering, and ovoid facial forms using two different radiographic methods. Materials and methods CI was recorded for 20 individuals, five for each group. For each individual CI was recorded by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital cephalogram with the occlusal rims in centric position. The CI was measured by the angle formed between the Frankfort horizontal plane and line joining the deepest point in the glenoid fossa (point A) and articular eminence (point B). Clinically, the facial forms were recorded by digital photographic records and were analyzed using the image analyzing software. Results The data obtained were statistically analyzed using the Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney test with Bonferroni correction for multiple pairwise comparison and facial forms were analyzed with digital cephalogram and CBCT. It had shown significant values for group III and group IV. Conclusion The obtained values for all the four facial forms were clinically relevant and can be used to program the semiadjustable articulator. CBCT was the better imaging technique to record CI and can be employed.
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Shaping ability of different root canal preparation systems p. 176
Dina A. Attia, Hatem A. Alhadainy, Abeer M. Darrag, Walaa M. Ghoneim
DOI:10.4103/tdj.tdj_6_19  
Aim To evaluate centering ability, amount of removed dentin of hand NiTi Flex K-files, ProTaper Universal system, OneShape, and WaveOne system in curved root canals. Materials and methods Forty extracted human premolars with a range of canal curvature (21–39°) were used. Samples were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10). Group 1: NiTi Flex (control group), group 2: ProTaper, group 3: OneShape, and group 4: WaveOne Primary. Centering ability of each instrument was evaluated using superimposed standardized preinstrumentation and postinstrumentation cone-beam computed tomography images recorded at three root canal levels (3, 6, and 9 mm from the apex). Amount of removed dentin was calculated by differences between preinstrumentation and postinstrumentation root canal volumes. Results WaveOne system showed the highest mean centering ratios at all tested canal levels in both directions. Apical thirds of all groups showed the highest centering ratios while the coronal showed the lowest. ProTaper system group recorded significantly highest amount of root dentin removal compared to other groups. Conclusion Reciprocating WaveOne files had more centering ability than other tested instruments. ProTaper Universal system removed significantly high amount of dentin in comparison to other systems.
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Effect of denture cleansers with and without fatigue stress on retention of locator attachments: in-vitro study p. 183
Mohammed A. Hamza, Fadel E. Elbhotty, Mohamed M. El-Sheikh
DOI:10.4103/tdj.tdj_7_19  
Background To evaluate the effect of denture cleansers with and without fatigue stress on the retention of the locator attachments. Materials and methods Three dummy implants of length (13 mm) and a diameter of 4.2 mm with their locator abutments were embedded into three acrylic resin blocks. Seventy pink locator attachments were divided into three groups: 10 for group I, 30 for each group II and group III. Group I exposed to 600 cycles of insertion and removal equivalent to 6 months use, group II and group III was subdivided into three subgroups, A, B, C according to the type of cleaner which was soaked in water, chlorhexidine gluconate 2% and alkaline peroxide solution for a period equivalent to 6 months. Group III was soaked in water, chlorhexidine gluconate 2% and alkaline peroxide solution, then exposed to 600 cycles of insertion and removal. The pink locator was tested for load to dislodgment on universal testing machine with a load cell of 5 kN at a crosshead speed of two in/min. Retention of locator attachments were statistically analyzed using Mann–Whitney test. Difference of mean values between more than two groups was tested by Friedman χ2-test. Results Group I: The retention of pink locator attachments was significantly decreased after 600 cycles of insertion and removal P = 0.005. Group II: The retentive value for attachment soaked in chlorhexidine gluconate 2% and that soaked in alkaline peroxide solution was significantly lower than that soaked in water (P = 0.001). Group III: the locator soaked in water and chlorhexidine gluconate 2% and alkaline peroxide solution was significantly affected after 600 cycles of insertion and removal. Conclusion Chlorhexidine gluconate 2% and alkaline peroxide solution has significant decrease the retention of pink locator attachment. Fatigue has significant effect on the retention of locator attachment either with or without the use of denture cleansers.
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Evaluation of bilateral mandibular distal extension implant supported overdenture retained by two clasp assemblies p. 189
Reda F. Radwan, Attiah A. El Gendy, Azza A. El-Segai, Saied M. Abdalla
DOI:10.4103/tdj.tdj_10_19  
Purpose Clinically evaluate the effect of clasp design on tissue health around abutment teeth and implants assisting mandibular bilateral distal extension removable partial overdenture. M&M: 12 partially edentulous patients with mandibular bilateral free end saddle opposed by almost dentulous intact maxilla with the first premolars. Two dental implants were inserted at the first molar areas to support a bilateral distal extension partial overdenture with lingual bar as major connector. According to clasp design patients are divided in two groups. Group I: six patients for whom removable partial overdentures were retained with O-ring attachment to the implants and RPI clasp to the first premolar abutment teeth. Group II: six patients for whom removable partial overdentures were retained with O-ring attachment to the implants and conventional Aker clasp to the abutment teeth. Clinical evaluation Gingival index, probing depth and teeth mobility together with radiographic evaluation for alveolar bone loss around both implants and abutments using Digora for Windows were carried out immediately at insertion, 3, 6, and 9 months after insertion. Results After the first 3 months gingival index and probing depth increased significantly in both groups within the physiological limit while at the end of ninth month after insertion, no statistically significant difference between two groups. Differences between two groups regarding mobility and alveolar bone loss around abutment teeth through all the study periods, there is no statistically significance difference between the two groups. Regarding mobility and alveolar bone loss around implants through all the study periods, there is no statistically significant difference between results. Conclusion Presence of bilateral posterior implants reduce most problems of mandibular Kennedy class I such as preservation of abutment teeth, reduction of alveolar bone loss around the abutments and reduction the problems of rigid (Aker) clasp.
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Parental satisfaction after children's dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia p. 197
Fatma K. I. Abdelgawad, Nada M. Wassef
DOI:10.4103/tdj.tdj_25_19  
Aim Dental treatment under general anesthesia is needed in case of patients with special needs, uncooperative or young children. The aim of this study is to assess the parental satisfaction and oral hygiene compliance after dental rehabilitation for their children under general anesthesia. Materials and methods Records of all patients with full dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia by the same operator at Pediatric Dentistry and Dental Public Health Department for 1 year were retrieved from archive. Patients were called for follow-up and to participate in the study. Different treatment modalities for primary and permanent teeth were recorded as pulp therapy (pulpotomy or pulpectomy), stainless steel crowns, preveneered stainless steel crowns, zirconium crowns, composite restorations, amalgam restorations, pits and fissure sealants, extractions, and space maintainers. Questionnaire was completed by parents recording their satisfaction regarding full dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia and their compliance with oral hygiene measures. Statistical analysis was performed. Number and percentages for different treatment modalities were calculated. Percentage of parental satisfaction and oral hygiene compliance was assessed. Results A number of 150 children records were retrieved from archive. Most of the parents were satisfied with the full dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia and stated that children were able to eat and smile with no pain. Thus, it affected their general health. Oral hygiene compliance was not satisfactory. Conclusion Dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia for children affects their quality of life. Oral hygiene instructions should be provided both orally and written for better compliance after general anesthesia and in follow-up visits.
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Invisible reinforcement of uncomplicated coronal fracture using two different fiber-reinforced composites: in-vitro and in-vivo study p. 201
Talat M. Beltagy
DOI:10.4103/tdj.tdj_27_19  
Purpose To evaluate in vitro and in vivo the fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) in the restoration of uncomplicated coronal fracture of upper permanent central incisors. Materials and Methods (a) In vitro: standardized one-third coronal sections were prepared on 30 extracted human maxillary central incisors with close similarity. The specimens were embedded perpendicular to standard molds of self-curing acrylic resins and randomly assigned into three groups (n = 10/each). Group I: restored with glass FRCs and particulate filler composite (PFC), group II: restored with polyethylene FRCs and PFC, and group III (control): restored with PFC. In the groups I and II, a shallow palatal preparation was prepared. The fracture resistance was determined by a universal testing machine. Failure modes were optically magnified and analyzed. (b) In vivo: a clinical prospective study was performed on 27 patients, aged 9–18 years, presented with Ellis class-II fractures of maxillary central incisors. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10 teeth/each) as in the in-vitro study. All patients were followed-up clinically and radiographically at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Results In vitro: the glass FRCs recorded the high fracture strength values, followed by polyethylene FRCs, and PFC and the difference was significant among them (P ≤ 0.05). Mode of failures showed no significant difference among them (P ≤ 0.05). However, in-vivo results showed 100% clinical success for FRCs groups compared with 80% for PFC, but the difference was not significant (P ≥ 0.05). The radiographic findings showed 100% success. Conclusion Only in the in-vitro study, the invisible substructure of glass FRCs followed by polyethylene FRCs seems to be significantly effective in restoration of Ellis class-II fractures of permanent incisors and promising to improve load-bearing capacity.
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Cytotoxicity study of different omega 3 formulations as a possible pulpotomy agents compared with formocresol in the primary teeth p. 216
Nancy M. Metwally, Amina M. El Hosary, Gamal M. El Maghraby, Maha A. El Demellawy, Mohamed N. Mahrous, Elsayed M. Deraz
DOI:10.4103/tdj.tdj_28_19  
Introduction Pulpotomy is a therapeutic procedure that consists of the surgical amputation of coronally inflamed pulp. The wounded surface of the radicular pulp is treated with a medicament or dressing agent to promote healing or to cause fixation of the underlying tissue. This in-vitro study assessed the cytotoxicity of different formulations of omega 3 as pulpotomy agents compared with formocresol (FC) on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Materials and methods Different formulations were tested using 96-well plates. The optical density of neutral red extract was measured using spectrophotometer, using blanks which contain no cells as a reference. The data were analyzed by Kruskal–Wallis test at the level of significance set at 0.001. Results The results showed that FC, ZnO, and ZnO/Tw/Eth had cytotoxic effects with lower survival rate of cells. There was absence of cytotoxicity after incubation with ZnO/Tw/Eth/ω3, Tw/Eth, MC, and MC/Tw/Eth in comparison with control. Moreover, there was no cytotoxic effect in cases of MC/Tw/Eth/ω3 and Tw/Eth/ω3, which showed higher survival rate of normal cells. Conclusion Omega 3 has no cytotoxic effects on viable cells, and it diminishes the toxic effect of ZnO when formulated with it and enhanced the effect of methylcellulose when compared with the cytotoxic FC.
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